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but Sumerian continued to be used as a written or ceremonial language in Mesopotamia well into the period of classical antiquity. During the early centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states were Isin and Larsa, although Shamshi-Adad I came close to uniting the more northern regions around Assur and Mari.
One of these Amorite dynasties was established in the city-state of Babylon, which would ultimately take over the others and form the first Babylonian empire, during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.
To the east, the Persians had been growing in strength, and eventually Cyrus the Great established his dominion over Babylon.
Mesopotamia was conquered by the Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus the Great in 539 BC, and remained under Persian rule for two centuries.
He was a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla who appears to have lived in the late 25th or early 24th century BC, according to the king list. Assyria had a period of empire from the 19th to 18th centuries BC.
The foundation of the first true urbanised Assyrian monarchy was traditionally ascribed to Ushpia a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra of Isin and Naplanum of Larsa. From the 14th to 11th centuries BC Assyria once more became a major power with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire.
Over the following years, Iraq came to the brink of civil war, and the situation deteriorated after the withdrawal of U. During 1957–1961 Shanidar Cave was excavated by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University, and nine skeletons of Neanderthal man of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness (labelled Shanidar I – IX) were discovered dating from 60–80,000 years BP. Zeder during examination of a faunal assemblage from the site at the Smithsonian Institution.The Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC) was the dominant political force in the Ancient Near East during the Iron Age, eclipsing Babylonia, Egypt, Urartu and Elam.During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language.A republic was established in 1958 following a coup d'état.It was controlled by Saddam Hussein from 1979 to 2003, into which period falls the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.
Baghdad's rapid growth stagnated in the 10th century due to the Buwayhid and Seljuq invasions, but it remained of central importance until the Mongol invasion of 1258.